Upping coffee consumption could help you live longer

A new study suggests that higher coffee consumption could reduce the risk of death from all causes

As one of the world’s most popular beverages, it is clear that us humans do love a good cup of coffee. And a new study drawing on data from over half a million Europeans suggests that this penchant for a little pick-me-up could have a range of health benefits, by revealing an association between higher coffee consumption and a reduced risk of death from all causes.

The research was carried out by scientists from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Imperial College London, who analyzed cancer and nutrition data from more than 500,000 Europeans over the age of 35. These subjects hailed from 10 different European countries, each with their distinctive styles of coffee consumption, such as the espresso sippers of Italy and the cappuccino-lovers of the UK.

This in itself revealed a few interesting insights. The people of Denmark, it was found, boast the highest level of coffee consumption by volume, at 900 mL (30 oz) per person per day, while the Italians consumed the least at around 92 mL (3.04 oz). The more coffee people drank, the more likely they were to be smokers, drinkers, meat-eaters, younger and not huge fans of fruit and vegetables.

Following up with the same participants 16 years later, the study found that 42,000 deaths had occurred from causes including cancer, circulatory diseases, heart failure and stroke. Adjusting for factors such as diet and smoking, the team says that subjects in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had significantly lower mortality rates than those that didn’t drink coffee.

“We found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of death from any cause, and specifically for circulatory diseases, and digestive diseases,” said lead author Dr. Marc Gunter of the IARC. “Importantly, these results were similar across all of the 10 European countries, with variable coffee drinking habits and customs. Our study also offers important insights into the possible mechanisms for the beneficial health effects of coffee.”

Among these insights was evidence that coffee drinkers may have healthier livers and better glucose control, something the researchers uncovered by analyzing metabolic biomarkers in a subset of 14,000 people. While coffee is know to contain compounds that interact with the body such as caffeine, diterpenes and antioxidants, the researchers say further research is needed pin down which ones in particular offer these apparent health benefits, along with how much would actually be a healthy amount to consume.

“Due to the limitations of observational research, we are not at the stage of recommending people to drink more or less coffee,” says Gunter. “That said, our results suggest that moderate coffee drinking – up to around three cups per day – is not detrimental to your health, and that incorporating coffee into your diet could have health benefits.”

The research was published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.

Source: Imperial College London



Use Facebook as a tool to help you quit smoking!

by Shantanu Nundy, MD


At 3am on Jan 1st 2010 my cousin-brother stubbed his last cigarette. New Year’s resolutions to quit smoking, lose weight, or change another bad habit are certainly not uncommon. Having tried — and failed — to quit a number of times before, my cousin took a bold, new approach to quitting.

Whether a cleverly devised plan, or just a whim, he decided to post his quitting on Facebook.

On January 4th, four days after smoking his last cigarette, he updated his status: “bring it on day 5!” Within hours, three people responded that they “Like” his comment; five others commented favorably with messages such as “Good for you!!!” and “Keep it going, bro.”

Encouraged by the support he received, my cousin posted another update three days later. Using his iPhone he wrote that he ”is one week non-smoking!!!” Again, within hours, eight people responded that they liked his comment and another two offered congratulatory remarks.

Though he didn’t necessarily realize it at the time, my cousin was creating a community of supporters through Facebook. The scientific literature is filled with evidence on the value of peer support for behavior modification. The “T” in the START mnemonic for quitting endorsed by www.smokefree.gov is to “Tell family, friends, and coworkers that you plan to quit.” This recommendation is based on the notion that smoking is not purely a chemical addiction; it has important environmental, social, and cultural elements, too.

Our peers do not only provide support for quitting on good days; they are equally invaluable on bad days. Three days after his last post, my cousin started feeling lousy. He posted having “a crazy head cold. Never felt this crappy in several years.” While he may have had caught a cold, it is more likely that he was going through nicotine withdrawal. Was this a simple update or a call for help? Seven of his friends responded offering home remedies and supportive messages. The next day he was feeling better and posted, “Twelfth smoke free day!,” garnering nine “Like”’s and seven enthusiastic comments. He responded, “Thanks for all the support everyone. Really helps me to stay on the path.”

People who quit often benefit from the support of a physician and other health care providers. Whether it be in the form of counseling, pharmacologic support, or referrals studies show that people who quit with the support of a health care provider have a much higher chance of success.

The problem is that assistance is often needed in real-time. I once shadowed a tobacco cessation counselor at my hospital who offered his cell phone number to every patient he saw, but this kind of dedication is rare. My cousin’s next post read, ”19th smoke-free day in a row. Maybe enjoy a cigar on the 30th day…let me ask my doctor…?” Here, too, surprisingly Facebook offered a solution. I immediately responded applauding him for his progress but also gently suggesting that it was probably too early for a celebratory puff.

Real-time support is critical because the decision to quit smoking isn’t made once. It’s made every day – in fact multiple times a day – whenever the nicotine craving hits. This is a major reason why social networks are so critical. Week 3 he posted that he ”… is wondering why day 21 is harder than 3,4,5 and 6 combined.” While my cousin could have called up 10 of his friends and told them that he was having a difficult time that day, it was clearly easier and perhaps more effective to post about it instead. After seeing his post, I called him to get his mind off of smoking.

Research in smoking cessation and behavior modification has demonstrated the importance of social networks. In recent years, there has been fascinating research showing, for example, that overweight people are more likely to have overweight friends and that happiness is contagious. The challenge in modern day society is how to activate these social networks to affect good.

Previous generations made greater use of formal networks such as religious gatherings, town hall meetings, and social clubs. While these avenues are still important today, increasingly technology is playing a role in defining our communities. While e-networks are less personal, this is not necessarily always a bad thing, especially when it comes to changing bad habits. They also benefit from a wider reach, being more real-time, and increasingly more dynamic.

Whether by design or accident, my cousin stumbled on an innovative approach to leverage social networks to quit smoking. And quitting smoking is just one application of e-social networks. Imagine the analogy for weight loss: “I lost 2 lbs this week!” soliciting responses of “Way to go!”, and “Feeling too lazy to go to the gym” being met with “You can do it! The hardest part is getting there!!”

Finally, though it is not as readily apparent, my cousin is not the only one benefiting from his Facebook posts. The positive effects of social networks go both ways. Friends following his posts are no doubt taking note of his success and being motivated to better themselves. His last post reads: “Still at it 41 days now. Feeling great and about to start a kick ass work out regimen.” Who knows? If he starts posting about his work outs on Facebook, I may just go to the gym more often.

Shantanu Nundy is an internal medicine physician who blogs at BeyondApples.org.

Have you used tobacco in any form, now or in the past?

Taking Care of Yourself

If you have used tobacco in any form, now or in the past, tell your health care provider so he or she can be sure that you have right preventive health care.

It is well known that smoking puts you at risk for certain health-related illnesses. This means part of your health care should focus on related screening and preventive measures to help you stay as healthy as possible.

For example, you will want to regularly check the inside of your mouth for any changes and have an oral exam by your doctor or dentist if you do find any changes or problems.

The American Cancer Society recommends that periodic check-ups should include oral cavity (mouth) exams. By doing this tobacco users may be able to find oral changes and leukoplakia (white patches on the mouth membranes) early. This may help prevent oral cancer.

You should also be aware of any of the following:

  • any change in a cough (for example, you cough up more phlegm than usual)
  • a new cough
  • coughing up blood
  • hoarseness
  • trouble breathing
  • wheezing
  • headaches
  • chest pain
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • general fatigue (feeling tired all the time)
  • repeated respiratory infections

Any of these could be signs of lung cancer or a number of other lung conditions and you should report any symptom to your doctor. Although these can be signs of a problem, many lung cancers do not cause any noticeable symptoms until they are advanced and have spread to other parts of the body.

If you have any health concerns that you think may be related to your cigarette smoking, please see your health care provider as quickly as possible.

Taking care of yourself and getting treatment for small problems will give you the best chance for successful treatment. The best way, though, to take care of yourself and decrease your risk for life-threatening lung problems is to quit smoking.