Mammography Patient Teaching-Aid Video

Mammography Training

Mammography

US Pharm..

Mammography Patient Teaching Aid Video

Mammography Detects Early Breast Cancer

The earlier cancer is found, the better the chance of a cure. Breast cancer is no exception because small breast cancers are less likely to spread to lymph nodes and vital organs such as the lungs and the brain. Mammography is an early screening test that can detect very small changes in breast tissue before a lump is felt. The low-dose x-ray of the mammogram shows abnormalities in breast tissue, such as masses or calcium deposits. Because an abnormality detected by a mammogram may not be cancerous, some follow-up testing is often required by a physician for a final diagnosis.

Capturing Clear Tissue Images

A mammogram is a simple test that uses a machine designed specifically to observe breast tissue. During the x-ray, the breast is positioned on the machine’s flat surface while it is compressed by another flat surface. Flattening the breast tissue allows the radiologist to see a clearer image of the tissue. The compression of the breast between the plates is done twice—once vertically and once horizontally.

Tutorial on Mammography Types

There are three basic types of x-ray mammography: standard, digital, and three-dimensional (3D). The standard mammogram takes an x-ray, and the image is printed on a large sheet of film for review by a radiologist using a light box. A digital mammogram (called full-field digital mammography, or FFDM) takes a low-dose x-ray image that is stored digitally on a computer and reviewed on a digital screen. Because the x-ray images are easier to store and retrieve with digital mammograms, they are becoming more common. The newest type of mammogram is 3D mammography (or breast tomosynthesis). For this x-ray, the breast is compressed between the two flat plates only once, and the machine takes many low-dose x-rays as it moves around the breast. A computer then arranges the images  into a 3D picture. Three-dimensional mammography is not covered under all health insurance policies, but it may allow doctors to see the breast tissues more clearly.

Screening Recommendation Depends on Risk Factors

Approximately one in every eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer during her lifetime, and the risk of breast cancer increases dramatically with age. Regular screening mammograms in women over age 40 years have been proven to lower the number of deaths due to breast cancer.

Your doctor will recommend a breast cancer–screening schedule after taking into account your age and specific risk factors. The general recommendation for women with an average risk of breast cancer is for mammograms to begin at age 45 years, or as early as age 40 years if the patient chooses. For these women, follow-up mammograms should occur every 1 to 2 years. Women with a higher risk of breast cancer, such as those with a family history of breast cancer or with certain genetic markers for breast cancer, may need to start screening earlier and receive screening more often. Unfortunately, mammography is not a perfect testing procedure. X-rays of breast tissue may not show all cancers, or they may falsely show an abnormality that is not present. This imperfection is why repeated screening on an agreed-upon schedule is important.

Preparing for a Successful Mammogram

If you are going to a mammography facility for the first time, bring a list of the places and dates of mammograms, biopsies, or other breast treatments you have had before. On the day of the mammogram, refrain from using creams, deodorants, powders, and perfumes under the arms or near the breasts. In some women, the pressure used to flatten the breast causes some temporary discomfort, but most women do not consider mammograms painful. To minimize the discomfort of a mammogram, schedule your appointment when your breasts are not tender or swollen and try to avoid the week just before your period.

If you have any questions about mammograms for breast-cancer screenings or community resources that provide affordable low or no-cost screenings for women, speak with your trusted local pharmacist or another healthcare provider.

Link to Original Article in US Pharmacist Magazine

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JD Power Identifies Decline in Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction Driven by Escalating Prescription Drug Costs

by Michael Johnsen

 

The U.S. pharmacy industry, perennially one of the highest-scoring industries measured by J.D. Power, experienced notable declines in overall customer satisfaction this year, the research firm reported Tuesday.

According to the J.D. Power 2017 U.S. Pharmacy Study, decreases in satisfaction with both brick-and-mortar and mail order pharmacies were driven primarily by declines in satisfaction with cost.

“Pharmacies have historically earned very high marks for customer satisfaction, so any significant year-over-year decline is cause for closer investigation,” stated Rick Johnson, director of the Healthcare Practice at J.D. Power. “Consumer concerns about rising drug prices have likely affected perceptions of the cost for their retail prescriptions. The decrease in satisfaction with cost is the primary drag on overall customer satisfaction, creating a serious challenge for retailers.”

“Pharmacies have historically earned very high marks for customer satisfaction, so any significant year-over-year decline is cause for closer investigation.”

Decreases in satisfaction with brick-and-mortar pharmacies were driven by year-over-year declines in satisfaction with cost, which fell 27 index points to 789 (on a 1,000-point scale), and the in-store experience, a 14-point drop to 851.  Decreases in satisfaction with mail order pharmacies were driven by declines in satisfaction with cost (minus 49 to 787) and the prescription ordering process (minus 15 to 877).

This year’s study measured drug adherence levels across the different pharmacy channels for the first time, and found that 79% of customers who filled prescriptions through a brick-and-mortar pharmacy reported they always were adherent to their medications. This compares with 84% among mail order customers and 74% among specialty pharmacy customers. Customers who discussed a prescription with a pharmacist in a brick-and-mortar pharmacy at the time of pick-up had the highest overall levels of adherence.

Among all channels studied, supermarkets had the highest levels of overall customer satisfaction (859), followed by mail order (853); hospital or clinic (851); chain drug stores (849); specialty pharmacy (842); and mass merchandisers (839).

AmerisourceBergen’s Good Neighbor Pharmacy ranked highest overall among brick-and-mortar chain drug stores with a score of 889.  McKesson’s Health Mart (886) ranked second and Cardinal Health’s The Medicine Shoppe Pharmacy ranked third (879).

Sam’s Club ranked highestoverall among brick-and-mortar mass merchandisers with a score of 874. Fred’s (873) ranked second and Costco (875) ranked third. While CVS Pharmacy at Target placed fifth this year, it had the largest increase in satisfaction of any pharmacy from 2016 (+20).

Brookshire Grocery ranked highest overall among brick-and-mortar supermarkets with a score of 894. H-E-B (893) ranked second and BI-LO (891) ranked third.

Walgreens Specialty Pharmacy ranked highest among specialty pharmacies with a score of 853. BriovaRx (851) ranked second and CVS Specialty/CVS Caremark (840) ranked third.

 

Link to original article posted in Drug Store News