Swine Influenza (Flu) Current U.S. Case Data

Swine Influenza (Flu)

Swine Flu website last updated April 29, 2009, 9:45 PM ET

U.S. Human Cases of Swine Flu Infection
(As of April 29, 2009, 11:00 AM ET)
States
# of laboratory confirmed cases
Deaths
Arizona 1  
California 14  
Indiana 1  
Kansas 2  
Massachusetts 2  
Michigan 2  
Nevada 1  
New York 51  
Ohio 1  
Texas
16
1
TOTAL COUNTS 91 cases 1 death
International Human Cases of Swine Flu Infection
See: World Health OrganizationExternal Web Site Policy.

The outbreak of disease in people caused by a new influenza virus of swine origin continues to grow in the United States and internationally. Today, CDC reports additional confirmed human infections, hospitalizations and the nation’s first fatality from this outbreak. The more recent illnesses and the reported death suggest that a pattern of more severe illness associated with this virus may be emerging in the U.S. Most people will not have immunity to this new virus and, as it continues to spread, more cases, more hospitalizations and more deaths are expected in the coming days and weeks.

 

Click here for currently updated data on Swine Flu and the number of people who are currently affected >

 http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/index.htm

Swine Flu in People

Can People Catch Swine Flu?

Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred. Most commonly, these cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). In addition, there have been documented cases of one person spreading swine flu to others. For example, an outbreak of apparent swine flu infection in pigs in Wisconsin in 1988 resulted in multiple human infections, and, although no community outbreak resulted, there was antibody evidence of virus transmission from the patient to health care workers who had close contact with the patient.

How common is swine flu infection in humans?
In the past, CDC received reports of approximately one human swine influenza virus infection every one to two years in the U.S., but from December 2005 through February 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine influenza have been reported.

What are the symptoms of swine flu in humans?
The symptoms of swine flu in people are expected to be similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza and include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with swine flu also have reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Check out this link for more information about swine flu >  

http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/key_facts.htm

 

         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cabin Fever – Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Source: Excerpts from Mayo Clinic Article

 

Definition of SAD

Like many people, you may develop cabin fever during the winter months. Or you may find yourself eating more or sleeping more when the temperature drops and darkness falls earlier. While those are common and normal reactions to the changing seasons, people with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) experience a much more serious reaction when summer shifts to fall and on to winter.

With seasonal affective disorder, fall’s short days and long nights may trigger feelings of depression, lethargy, fatigue and other problems. Don’t brush this off as simply a case of the “winter blues” that you have to tough out on your own.

Seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression, and it can severely impair your daily life. That said, treatment — which may include light box therapy — can help you successfully manage seasonal affective disorder. You don’t have to dread the dawning of each fall or winter.

Symptoms

Seasonal affective disorder is a cyclic, seasonal condition. This means that signs and symptoms usually come back and go away at the same times every year. Usually, seasonal affective disorder symptoms appear during late fall or early winter and go away during the warmer, sunnier days of spring and summer. But some people have the opposite pattern, developing seasonal affective disorder with the onset of spring or summer. In either case, problems may start out mild and become more severe as the season progresses.

Fall and winter SAD (winter depression)
Symptoms of winter-onset seasonal affective disorder include:

Depression

Hopelessness

Anxiety

Loss of energy

Social withdrawal

Oversleeping

Loss of interest in activities you once enjoyed

Appetite changes, especially a craving for foods high in carbohydrates

Weight gain

Difficulty concentrating and processing information

Spring and summer SAD (summer depression)
Symptoms of summer-onset seasonal affective disorder include:

Anxiety

Insomnia

Irritability

Agitation

Weight loss

Poor appetite

Increased sex drive

Reverse SAD


In rare cases, people with seasonal affective disorder don’t have depression-like symptoms. Instead, they have symptoms of mania or hypomania, a less intense form of mania, during the summer. This is sometimes called reverse SAD.

Symptoms of reverse SAD include:

Persistently elevated mood

Increased social activity

Hyperactivity

Unbridled enthusiasm out of proportion to the situation

Causes

The specific cause of seasonal affective disorder remains unknown. It’s likely, as with many mental health conditions, that genetics, age and perhaps most importantly, your body’s natural chemical makeup all play a role in developing seasonal affective disorder.

Specifically, the culprits may include:

Your circadian rhythm. Some researchers suspect that the reduced level of sunlight in fall and winter may disrupt the circadian rhythm in certain people. The circadian rhythm is a physiological process that helps regulate your body’s internal clock — letting you know when to sleep or wake. Disruption of this natural body clock may cause depression.

Melatonin. Some researchers theorize that seasonal affective disorder may be tied to melatonin, a sleep-related hormone that, in turn, has been linked to depression. The body’s production of melatonin usually increases during the long nights of winter.

Serotonin. Still other research suggests that a lack of serotonin, a natural brain chemical (neurotransmitter) that affects mood, may play a role. Reduced sunlight can cause a drop in serotonin, perhaps leading to depression.

When to seek medical advice

Most people experience some days when they feel down. But if you feel down for days at a time and you can’t seem to get motivated to do activities you normally enjoy, see your doctor. This is particularly important if you notice that your sleep patterns and appetite have changed — and certainly if you feel hopeless, think about suicide, or find yourself turning to alcohol for comfort or relaxation.

Medications

Some people with seasonal affective disorder benefit from treatment with antidepressants or other psychiatric medications, especially if symptoms are severe. The Food and Drug Administration has approved bupropion extended release tablets (Wellbutrin XL) for the prevention of depressive episodes in people with a history of seasonal affective disorder. Other antidepressants commonly used to treat seasonal affective disorder include paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) and venlafaxine (Effexor).

Your doctor may recommend starting treatment with an antidepressant before your symptoms typically begin each year. He or she may also recommend that you continue to take antidepressant medication beyond the time your symptoms normally go away. This strategy can help prevent worsening of symptoms.

Keep in mind that it may take several weeks to notice full benefits from an antidepressant. In addition, you may have to try several different medications before you find one that works well and has the fewest side effects. Like other medications, all antidepressants pose the risk of side effects and some have health precautions that you and your doctor must discuss.

Prevention

There’s no known way to prevent the development of seasonal affective disorder. However, if you take steps early on to manage symptoms, you may be able to prevent them from getting worse over time. Some people find it helpful to start treatment before symptoms would normally start in the fall or winter, and then continue treatment past the time symptoms would normally go away. If you can get control of your symptoms before they begin, you may be able to head off serious changes in mood, appetite and behavior that can disrupt your daily life.

 

Sad Bear picture is from mahnamahna.net/blog

Staph Infections – MRSA – In Children Under 18

by Bob Diamond R.Ph

CA-MRSA Staph Infection
CA-MRSA Staph Infection

Methycillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known public health problem.

 

I just read a new study in the September 2008 issue of the North Carolina Medical Journal The study was about Community Acquired – Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, better known as a CA-MRSA infection, in children under 18 years old.

This is different than the MRSA (pronounced mersa) skin infection that has been acquired in a hospital setting. If a staph infection was acquired in the hospital, it is called HA-MRSA.

The Wake Forest University School of Medicine conducted the study.

This study was designed to look at children who reported to an emergency room with a skin abscess (skin infection with puss) that looked like it might be MRSA. If the child had not been admitted to a hospital within the last 30 days, and they had MRSA, it was determined to be community acquired. The study covered an 18-month period. 88 children were evaluated. They ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years.

After the CA-MRSA infection was identified by the doctor, each individual infection was tested by a laboratory to determine which antibiotics were the most effective against it.

The study concluded that community acquired-MRSA was responsible for almost 90 percent of the skin abscesses that were seen in the emergency department during that time.

The most interesting fact that came out of this study was that if an abscess was less than two inches (five centimeters) across, the wound would usually heal, if the doctor cleaned and debrided (removed dead or diseased tissue) the wound thoroughly, whether he administered antibiotics of not.

If the wound was larger than two inches, then the patient would only be healed if they were admitted to the hospital, and given aggressive antibiotic treatment.

One thing this study demonstrated is that CA-MRSA is not normally life threatening if it is taken care of while the size of the abscess is less than two inches. If you wait too long to treat it, then it can become life threatening.

If you see an infection on a child’s skin that has puss in it you need to treat it is as soon as possible, before it becomes a serious problem.

Click here for the North Carolina Medical Journal

Bob Diamond R.Ph

www.BobthePharmacist.com

DiamondRN@gmail.com

CA-MRSA Staph Infection